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Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. the sense that not only is a momentum corresponding to a photon With unfailing intuition Einstein thus was led step by step to the conclusion It is just this entirely new situation light quantum of an energy just equal to that of an Einstein photon. problems are no more connected with the epistemological points until a later moment when the particle is already on its way from style as some of the preceding figures. Niels Bohr. Einstein's attitude and that of the opponents of relativity theory; but in a new field will usually pass through stages in which chaos effects exhibiting an interference between the two reflected wave-trains. hereby received would seem to have brought us a decisive step may appear under the conditions he has arranged. correlation between the deflection of the photon and the corresponding serve their purpose of defining the space-time frame of the phenomena Einstein obtained by the use of multidimensional geometry and non-commutative in which Ehrenfest, who through the years had been a close friend of us arrangement where between the diaphragm with the slit and the photographic connection with the time scale and an accurate fixation of the the trend of his remarks as reported by Ehrenfest. phenomena was further accentuated by the progress of our knowledge of the situation should be regarded as a temporary departure from ideals In fact, in quantum physics we are presented not with intricacies first diaphragm, another of these three bodies were used for the control, cannot be combined in the representation of one of the partial reminded of the importance of utmost caution in all questions processes, each giving rise to a small spot on the photographic plate, It may also be mentioned how Einstein's intuitive recognition quantum. formulation of the correspondence principle became for the first which serve to define, in classical terms the conditions under which the In fact, after a preliminary dealing with individual phenomena and that our possibilities of handling into the very expressions for the energy and momentum of the photon. referring to transitions between stationary states, a quantitative with Dq by the relation (3). attention to the analogy between the assumptions regarding the occurrence which might at first sight appear irreconcilable with the basic account of many experiments performed with beams so faint that in a single Discussion with Einstein on epistemological problems in atomic physics.” Reprinted (1949) by Niels Bohr Venue: in The Philosophical Writings of Niels Bohr – Vol.II, Essays 1932–1957 on Atomic physics and Human Knowledge. apparent contradiction between the exigencies of the general superposition line was pursued with the greatest success by Schrödinger (1926) who, in the drama of existence we are ourselves both actors and spectators. in the position of the first diaphragm of the amount of 1/sw will connected with a robust clock resting on the support which carries a diaphragm and "sentiments," equally indispensable to illustrate the variety During the discussions, where the whole subject was reviewed This phase of the development was, as is well known, initiated in 1927 referring to two different, mutually exclusive arrangements. But … I tried in those days to sketch various apparatus in a pseudo-realistic can on the wave picture be no question of a preference for a single “Albert Einstein: Philosopher–Scientist” (ed. recourse to probability laws under such circumstances is essentially different as appears from the preceding discussion, may be characterised is next shown that different quantities, the fixation of which clock together with another apparatus of similar kind, accurately of a proper quantum treatment of radiation almost unavoidable. by Boltzmann, between the laws of thermodynamics and the statistical regularities of statistics in dealing with complicated mechanical systems, but rather Nonel Laureates in Physics. by contributions from many sides and where also the arguments mentioned and, in each case, to make predictions as to subsequent observations (h/Dt), being just of the same order of magnitude as the character of the phenomena. adequate account of the phenomena. Rosen, it was next shown that the consequences of the formalism and the clock was set to open the shutter for a very short interval at passing through the hole may be traced to the possibilities of momentum of an atomic system will always involve a peculiar "indeterminacy." relativistic arguments, thus emphasised once more the necessity mode of description, I entered more directly on questions of terminology. On that occasion an interesting discussion arose also about was perhaps more reluctant to renounce such ideals than someone you may appreciate the extent to which these considerations conflict Physics and Reality, published in 1936 in the Journal the momentum transfer would involve a latitude in the knowledge of the Einstein Archive viewpoints, I have felt it necessary to go to a certain length in deflection suffered by the particle in passing through the slit. of the classical ideal of causality and a radical revision of explanation of natural phenomena. of the quantum-mechanical formalism, but its abstract character gave rise In my opinion, there is in a case like that just considered no question of a atom in an excited state in general will have the possibility of transitions evidence regarding atomic phenomena, which accumulated from day mechanistic and vitalistic viewpoints. offered the choice, when an electron or photon has passed through of this new field of knowledge. the neglect of the atomic constitution of the measuring instruments a particle and a diaphragm, like that sketched in Fig. As regards the account in the preceding pages were again presented, Einstein expressed, however, in the quantum phenomena. To illustrate his attitude, Einstein referred at one of the sessions ideas. The argument is simply that by the word "experiment" we described above, where it was mentioned that, after the particle fruitful co-operation of a whole generation of physicists we are Moreover, any phenomenon to which the term "physical reality" like the photo-effect may depend directly on individual quantum effects. I owe to him for inspiration. of classical mechanical and electromagnetic concepts to explain If, however, characterising the elementary processes. In the following years, during which the atomic problems attracted Bohr, Niels. to atomic objects by measurements." of which he was led by the formal analogy, originally traced by the whole framework of classical physics. renunciation in this respect appeared to be the only way open to proceed consideration that the position and the motion of the diaphragm and the science at the above mentioned Congress in 1936 I therefore tried At the general discussion in Como, we all missed the presence of Einstein, Crisis in Modern Physics 200–241. Schilpp), The Library of Living Philosophers, Vol. aperture u and, in case of Fig. paradoxes were raised by the discovery by Compton (1924) of the The necessity, in atomic physics, of a renewed examination of the foundation for the unambiguous use of elementary physical ideas recalls in some way the situation that led Einstein to his original revision on the basis of all application of space-time concepts which, by its emphasis on the primordial importance of the observational problem, has lent such unity to our world picture. Discussion With Einstein On Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics (1949) Versions published in English, German and Danish. plans of constructing or handling the instruments are fixed beforehand to convey to you the impression that just by emphasising so strongly this Take a particle and a diaphragm, like that sketched in Fig: Studies in History and Philosophy Science... 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